This article documents my fiddling around with the Orange Pi 2G-IOT. It is also a tutorial where we will build a custom Linux image to run on the on-board NAND flash memory, a custom bootloader to boot it, and then flash them using a custom tool that I wrote.

The Board

The Orange Pi 2G-IOT is one of a series of single-board computers in the Orange Pi product line. It has a RDA8810 SoC and, uniquely in the series, 2G GSM connectivity. It was, most likely, originally designed as a phone. In fact, it comes loaded with an Android OS and as far as I can gather, it is a single touchscreen (and maybe a battery) away from being an actual smart phone.

The board has a micro SD/MMC card slot, a ~512 MiB internal NAND flash memory, and a jumper to select which one to boot off of. While it's easy to write an image to the SD card and boot it, the NAND counterpart is challenging because of the lack of tools, documentation and official images. Hopefully, this article and the accompanying tools remedy some of that.

Installing GNU/Linux on the NAND

The flash memory is divided into partitions, so our list of basic requirements is:

We will be using a single small bootloader partition and a single large GNU/Linux system partition. We will be using my own flashing tool along with two required flashing stage binaries, pdl1.bin and pdl2.bin. We will generate the system image by slightly modifying one of the official SD card distributions, the bootloader and the two PDL1 binaries by building a fork of the bootloader code, and the partition table by hand.

The Partition Table

Every process involving the NAND starts with the partition table. This table divides the memory into pieces and labels every piece. Here is what the stock Android partition table looks like, in the Linux (kernel) command line parameter format2:


U-Boot also uses this format so it is the only format we will ever need.

On reboot, the RDA8810 looks for the boot image at address 03. This is where the bootloader will go, and thus it is where we will have the partition called bootloader. We'll round it off to, say, 2 MiB and leave the rest of the memory to our single system partition. Assuming the NAND is 512 MiB4, that sould be 510 MiB. Let's call the partition nandroot:


And that's it! Later, we will work this partition table into the bootloader, the PDL2, and the boot scripts.

The GNU/Linux Image

Creating a filesystem (and/or a filesystem image) to work on NAND flash memory is not straightfoward because the NAND flash is not a random-access block device. Reading is straightforward, but writing requires whole blocks of memory to be erased first. These blocks have finite life so the erasures (and therefore the writes) need to be spread evenly across the device5. It is therefore necessary to use technologies designed with these constraints in mind. We will be creating a UBI volume and a UBIFS image6.

We need a working distribution to use as a base image. If you don't have one already, go ahead and set one up. Orange Pi 2G-IOT has official GNU/Linux distributions on the download page. We will be booting off the MMC and working there. You will need lots of free space on the card (we will be making three copies of (most of) the entire filesystem, only two of them compressed), so use a nonsmall card and expand the root filesystem if necessary.



Let's create a directory to work from:

mkdir nandfs
cd nandfs

First, we want a copy of the whole root filesystem, shrunk down to less than the NAND size. I'll leave it up to you to remove the cruft7 and/or add it to the list of excludes below. I've found that rsync -x is a good way to go about this. In fact, I've written a small shell script:

set -euo pipefail
set -x

SCRIPT_DIR="$(dirname "$(readlink -f "$0")")"


rsync -a -x --delete --delete-excluded / /boot "$DEST_ROOT" -f "merge $SRC/cpfs.filter" -v
cp "$SRC"/fstab "$DEST_ROOT"/etc/fstab

Note that it uses a filter file called cpfs.filter. This is useful for specifying exclusions; files that we want (or can't be bothered to delete) on the MMC but not the NAND:

+ /home/orangepi/.bash_logout
+ /home/orangepi/.bashrc
+ /home/orangepi/.profile
- /home/orangepi/**

- /var/backup/**
- /var/cache/**
- /var/lib/apt/lists/**
- /var/log/**
- /var/tmp/**

- /usr/share/doc/**
- /usr/share/man/**

- __pycache__
- *.pyc

Ignoring the fstab bit for the moment, we have a script capable of creating and updating the NAND root filesystem. Let's test it:

sudo ~/nandfs/
+++ readlink -f /home/orangepi/nandfs/
++ dirname /home/orangepi/nandfs/
+ SCRIPT_DIR=/home/orangepi/nandfs
+ SRC=/home/orangepi/nandfs
+ DEST=/home/orangepi/nandroot
+ DEST_IMG=/home/orangepi/nandroot.img
+ rsync -a -x --delete --delete-excluded / /home/orangepi/nandroot -f 'merge /home/orangepi/nandfs/cpfs.filter' -v
sending incremental file list
created directory /home/orangepi/nandroot

We should have the root filesystem at ~/nandfs/nandroot, minus a custom fstab and a custom boot script.

Let's do fstab first. On my system, /etc/fstab looks like:

# OrangePI fstab
/dev/mmcblk0p2  /  ext4  errors=remount-ro,noatime,nodiratime  0 1
# /dev/mmcblk0p1  /media/boot  vfat  defaults  0 0
/dev/mmcblk0p1	/boot	ext2	errors=remount-ro,noatime,nodiratime	0 0
tmpfs /tmp  tmpfs nodev,nosuid,mode=1777  0 0

We simply need to remove the MMC partitions and add a NAND one:

ubi0:nandroot  /  ubifs  defaults  0 1
tmpfs /tmp  tmpfs nodev,nosuid,mode=1777  0 0

As for the boot script, we will base ours on /boot/boot.cmd. Here is the original file for reference:

# default values
setenv verbosity "8"
setenv init_modem "yes"

if test "${boot_device}" = "mmc"; then

	setenv rootdev "/dev/mmcblk0p2"
	setenv rootfstype "ext4"

	if ext2load mmc 0:1 ${load_addr} armbianEnv.txt; then
		env import -t ${load_addr} ${filesize}

	setenv bootargs "root=${rootdev} rootwait rootfstype=${rootfstype} console=ttyS0,921600 panic=10 consoleblank=0 loglevel=${verbosity} ${extraargs} ${extraboardargs}"

	ext2load mmc 0:1 ${initrd_addr} uInitrd
	ext2load mmc 0:1 ${kernel_addr} zImage
	ext2load mmc 0:1 ${modem_addr} modem.bin
	echo "NAND boot is not implemented yet"

if test "${init_modem}" = "yes"; then
	mdcom_loadm ${modem_addr}
	mdcom_check 1

bootz ${kernel_addr} ${initrd_addr}

# Recompile with:
# mkimage -C none -A arm -T script -d /boot/boot.cmd /boot/boot.scr

We will use the same basic commands to boot. It is pointless to keep the boot_device switch and MMC boot code because this is a NAND-specific file living on a NAND partition using a NAND-specific version of the bootloader. (Anyone modifying the U-Boot source code to simultaneously support both MMC and NAND boot can also instruct it to use different filenames on the different devices.)

Without the conditionals, boot-nand.cmd is much simpler:

setenv ubiargs "ubi.mtd=1"
setenv rootdev "ubi0:nandroot"
setenv rootfstype "ubifs"

setenv bootargs "${ubiargs} ${mtdparts} root=${rootdev} rootwait rootfstype=${rootfstype} console=ttyS0,921600 panic=10 consoleblank=0 loglevel=8 ${extraargs} ${extraboardargs}"

ubifsload ${initrd_addr} "/boot/uInitrd"
ubifsload ${kernel_addr} "/boot/zImage"
ubifsload ${modem_addr} "/boot/modem.bin"

mdcom_loadm ${modem_addr}
mdcom_check 1

bootz ${kernel_addr} ${initrd_addr}

# Recompile with:
# mkimage -C none -A arm -T script -d /boot/boot-nand.cmd /boot/boot-nand.scr

It instructs U-Boot to use ubifsload to load the images and additionally passes ubi.mtd=1 and mtdparts=... to the kernel. Creating the compiled version, boot-nand.scr, is as simple as following the instructions in the file:

sudo mkimage -C none -A arm -T script -d /boot/boot-nand.cmd /boot/boot-nand.scr

And the boot script is ready.

At this point, we need to run again to update the filesystem before taking its image:

sudo ~/nandfs/

Now that we have the filesystem ready, it's time to convert it into a UBIFS image. For this, we will use mkfs.ubifs. It is not the easiest tool to use, and it requires us to know some things about the UBI volume we are going to create and the memory it is going to reside on. (The FAQ has an entry on these parameters, but it is also possible to determine them by creating an empty UBI volume and using the debug/info output of the tools involved in the process.)

In our case, the logical eraseblock (LEB) size is 248 KiB, and the minimum I/O unit size is equal to the subpage size, 4 KiB. Specifying a maximum LEB count of 20008 limits the filesystem to ~512 MiB. I've written another small shell script:

set -euo pipefail
set -x

SCRIPT_DIR="$(dirname "$(readlink -f "$0")")"


mkfs.ubifs -e 248KiB -m 4096 -c $MAX_LEB -r "$DEST_ROOT" -o "$DEST_FS_IMG"

Let's run it:

sudo ~/nandfs/
+++ readlink -f /home/orangepi/nandfs/
++ dirname /home/orangepi/nandfs/
+ SCRIPT_DIR=/home/orangepi/nandfs
+ DEST_ROOT=/home/orangepi/nandfs/nandroot
+ DEST_FS_IMG=/home/orangepi/nandfs/nandroot.img
+ MAX_LEB=2000
+ mkfs.ubifs -e 248KiB -m 4096 -c 2000 -r /home/orangepi/nandfs/nandroot -o /home/orangepi/nandfs/nandroot.img

This creates the UBIFS image. Next, we will create the UBI image using ubinize. This command requires an image definition, given in an .ini file:


You may have noticed that the volume size is 480 MiB. This is not only because the exact maximum size is hard to calculate, but also in case someone needs an extra volume in the future9.

In order to create the UBI image, we need to call ubinize with another set of parameters; this time the physical eraseblock (PEB) size in addition to the minimum I/O size. The PEB size is the page size of the NAND (256 KiB in our case) and the minimum I/O size is still the subpage size (4 KiB). Here is the third small shell script:

set -euo pipefail
set -x

SCRIPT_DIR="$(dirname "$(readlink -f "$0")")"


ubinize -p 256KiB -m 4096 "$SRC"/ubinize.ini -o "$DEST_UBI_IMG"

Let's call it:

sudo ~/nandfs/

And the image should be ready at ~/nandfs/ubi.img. I suggest using rsync -P to get it off the device as the device's Wi-Fi is not very stable.

The Bootloader

The official bootloader is U-Boot and that is what we will be using. Orange Pi released their modified source code in the "Android SDK" download and there is a repository at GitHub. We will be using my fork which has NAND-boot- and NAND-flashing-specific improvements.

We will need to build the bootloader using an ARM GCC toolchain. It is possible to do this on the device itself, but it will be much faster to cross-compile on a PC. Unless your PC is a compatible ARM, you will most likely need to set the CROSS_COMPILE variable. This variable prefixes every gcc/binutils command, so if your cross-compiler is called arm-none-eabi-gcc, you will need to set CROSS_COMPILE=arm-none-eabi-. Please install an ARM GCC toolchain and determine your own prefix. I use the Debian package gcc-arm-none-eabi and the prefix seen below.

Let's clone the U-Boot fork, cd to it and change to the nand-boot branch:

git clone
Cloning into 'u-boot-RDA8810'...
cd u-boot-RDA8810
git checkout nand-boot
Branch nand-boot set up to track remote branch nand-boot from origin.
Switched to a new branch 'nand-boot'

If you are using a custom partition table, this is the time to bake it into the source. See the file include_rda/tgt_ap_flash_parts.h.

Let's build the PDL binaries first:

make CROSS_COMPILE=arm-none-eabi- clean rda8810_config
Configuring for rda8810 board...
make CROSS_COMPILE=arm-none-eabi- pdl=1 PDL

Save the files pdl1.bin and pdl2.bin; they will not survive the next build.

Next, build the bootloader itself:

make CROSS_COMPILE=arm-none-eabi- clean rda8810_config
Configuring for rda8810 board...
make CROSS_COMPILE=arm-none-eabi- 

And obtain u-boot.rda.

Finally, we can go on to...

The Flashing

By now you should have ubi.img, pdl1.bin, pdl2.bin and u-boot.rda. Get my flashing script either directly or by cloning its repository.

Make sure the boot device selector jumper is in the NAND position and put your Orange Pi into OTG/recovery mode by powering it up with the button depressed10. (DIP switch #1 may also need to be in the ON position.) The Orange Pi should identify itself as a USB HID CDC ACM device and your system should assign it a device node, probably /dev/ttyACM0. With all the files in the same directory, run:

python3 -p /dev/ttyACM0 --format-flash --pdl1 pdl1.bin --pdl2 pdl2.bin bootloader:u-boot.rda nandroot:ubi.img
Opening /dev/ttyACM0...
Sending partition pdl1 (len #) to 0x00100100
Sending partition pdl2 (len #) to 0x80008000
Partition table: mtdparts=rda_nand:2M@128K(bootloader),2M(factorydata),2M(misc),4M(modem),8M(boot),10M(recovery),300M(system),300M(vendor),-(userdata)
Formatting flash memory...
Partition table: mtdparts=rda_nand:2M(bootloader),510M(nandroot)
Sending partition bootloader (len #) to 0x00000000
Sending partition nandroot (len #) to 0x00000000

Reboot, and your Orange Pi 2G-IOT should now boot from NAND!

  1. I have to admit at this point that I have no idea what "PDL" stands for.

  2. mtdparts is documented at Documentation/block/cmdline-partition.txt.

  3. I know the stock partition table starts at 128K. I try not to worry about it too much.

  4. The website says "500MB". U-Boot says 512 MiB, but is only able to read the first 511 MiB.

  5. Known as "wear leveling". Wikipedia article.


  7. Tip: ncdu is an excellent utility.

  8. This parameter specifies the maximum size the filesystem can take, given a larger volume.

  9. Say, you decide to make the root filesystem read-only and use a small read-write partition for logs.

  10. For non-native speakers: This just means "pressed".